Creating Acrobat 3D files from Microstation - problems

I am using Microstation as my CAD platform. There are a number of ways I can create 3D files from within Microstation, but only one method seems to allow the transfer of the levels used in Microstation. I do this by opening Acrobat 3D, then importing the microstation 3D file. Doing this brings across all the Microstation level info into the model tree. That is perfect, BUT, the model is not rendering properly/fully in Acrobat.
The Microstation file is about 3MB in size and the created pdf file is 7MB in size.
Another method I've used is to export from with Microstation to a "u3d" file format, then import that file into Acrobat 3D. This method and a few others I have tried will import the 3D model, fully rendered without problem, but none of the levels are imported from Microstation. These files are about 1.5MB or less.
The problem is that it is important for my clients to be able to use the model tree to toggle various levels on and off. It is not practical for me to use the 3D Toolkit to group and rename elements to match the Microstation levels.
Can anyone help me here? I'm thinking there must just be a setting I need to toggle on and off somewhere to fix the problem.
I am using Microstation V8, Acrobat 3D Version 8, My workstation is dual processor @ 3 GHz and 2GB RAM.

Yes, all versions of Acrobat can do that.
On Tue, Mar 31, 2015 at 11:54 PM, mariab59929580 <[email protected]>

Similar Messages

  • Using Acrobat X and creating a PDF File from EXCEL 2010, I notice that the Pagination restarts at 1 for each Worksheet included in the PDF.

    I use Acrobat X Standard and created a PDF file from two or more worksheets using EXCEL 2010.
    The resulting PDF file restarts the PAGE # (In header/footer settings of Excel) at 1 for each worksheet.
    However, a colleague of mine who has Acrobat X Pro version, using EXCEL 2010 and same exact file does the same task, he gets a file that starts at page 1 and second worksheet continues the page # from the last page of the First worksheet.
    We both are using the ACROBAT menu (not the print to Adobe printer) to create the file so that we can get Bookmarks included in the resulting file for each worksheet.
    We cannot figure out any option in Acrobat's preferences that controls the pagination on either of these versions of Acrobat.
    So is this just a feature that works one way in Standard version and another way in the Pro version, and the user has no control over it?

    This is so sad. I read your comments and I said, "Huh?" Haha!
    I tried the indexed color option and it did make the final file smaller. Around 600KB. But there's probably another way to make it even smaller like the gazillion-paged pdf file that I mentioned that was only about 300KB.
    And by saying a layout program, does that mean like Adobe InDesign? Does that mean that I should just make my graphics in Photoshop and then import using another program and finish the file there?
    What other layout programs can I use?
    Thank you so much!

  • How to create a pdf file from multiple images ?

    Dear All,
    I want to create a SINGLE page pdf file from two or more page size images that are combined to make a single page pdf. Again, this question is on pdfs that are made out of several, atleast  two color images and a black-and-white mask for one of them.
    I have such pdf files from an unknown source (the producer is edited out) whereby there are three tiff images, obtained using the well known pdfimages extractor.
    When I want to make a pdf out of tiff or png or other image formats, I right click and tell Adobe Acrobat to make a pdf.
    However, I dont know how I can give a command to select say,  three tif images and specify which is the mask for which and then join  them in a way that I get the pdf from the composite of the two color images and a mask for one of them.
    Please help me out.
    I am a little familiar with the pdf structure skeleton and when necessary, fixed xref tables in one of my favorite editors. A few years ago, I also wrote a bunch of javascripts to make some annotations and needed some automation and used some itext type libraries. However, I need your help in this problem as I am now rusty and forgot some of what I studied to solve my earlier problems. This is a new problem for me. Gentle hints from you would be very nice to help me in this problem. Please specify if necessary what manual and pages to read. in the pdfspec.
    Best Regards
    Disabled Veteran [physically handicapped]

    Hello Again.
    On Fri, May 11, 2012 at 12:20 PM, lrosenth <[email protected]> wrote:
    >
    > Re: How to create a pdf file from multiple images ?
    >
    > created by lrosenth in PDF Language and Specifications - View the full
    > discussion
    > ________________________________
    >
    > No clue who Irving is…
    >
    I was hoping to have your first name so its easy for me to address you.
    > I have no clue what OS platform, programming language, etc. you use so
    > can’t really narrow things down.
    I would gladly mention that I am working on windows platform, preferably XP.
    I can also work on linux for free products that come with it.
    >  Also, as this is an Adobe forum, we only
    > recommend Adobe products – so there may be other options that even my list
    > wouldn’t include.
    But adding other products, for the help of an adobe products user,
    even if it outside adobe, shall add greater prestige to your company
    and give impression of user-centeredness.
    > If you read ISO 32000-1:2008 (aka the PDF standard), you will find the
    > information about Images and Image Masks well described.  I didn’t think I
    > needed to repeat any of that information.
    Well, just add the few pdf stanzas since you are proficient on it and
    I am presently a little rusty as I mentioned. Just asking a little
    extra yard, not even to go an extra mile.
    > And, if you read that same document, you will see that there is NO SUCH
    > THING as a “text only PDF”.   All PDF documents are structured binary files.
    Well, ascii format or uncompressed format that is human readable. I
    know its a binary file, but human readable ascii version of it.
    I hope you can give me some stanza and various other approaches
    possible so I can select or combine things for myself. I see only a
    miniscule number of posts claiming to have written masks in this forum
    and then with no details.
    Regards
    Roger
    Message was edited by: dying veteran
    because the adobe posting system went crazy and truncated all except the first line ... dunno why

  • Creating a PD file from MS Word (2007) document

    I have Adobe Acrobat 8 Pro (as part of CS3) and MS Word 2007 (as part of Office 2007)and have been trying to create a PDF file from a word document.
    Here are the steps I have taken:
    Open Word document and then click the "Acrobat" Tab.
    Then click "Create PDF" tab
    In the dialog box that appears I selected "Fully Fucntional PDF" and clicked OK
    I get the following message: "PDFMaker cannot locate the Adobe PDF Printer's printer driver. Please re-install Adobe Acrobat 8.0."
    So I re-installed Adobe CS3 (which contains Acrobat 8 Pro). This did not solve the problem.
    I repeated the whole process again this time selecting "Quick and simple PDF" and clicked OK. This time a PDF file was created.
    My question is - why can't I create a "Fully Functional PDF" file? Is there something wrong or do I need some higher level version of Acrobat?
    Looking forward to some advice. Thanks. Alan

    Look in the printer list to be sure that the Adobe PDF printer is loaded. Also, go to the Adobe.com>download>updates and download all of the updates for AA8 and install them in order (don't try to skip unless the site says you can). The current version is AA8.1.3. That might solve the problem. It may be that you need at least AA8.1.2 to work properly with WORD 2007. There were a lot of problems with the initial release.

  • Generally when creating a Word file from either a Mac or Win7 pc and opening it on two different machines (either one first) it always prompts that the file is open and will be opened as read only. However opening a CSS file does not prompt that it is alr

    Generally when creating a Word file from either a Mac or Win7 pc and opening it on two different machines (either one first) it always prompts that the file is open and will be opened as read only.
    However opening a CSS file does not prompt that it is already open on or from any machine which is causing code edits to be lost.
    What we found from out testing:
    - The file can be saved from one user to the server and WILL NOT PROMPT on other machines until the saving machine has the Dreamweaver program closed completely
    - The file can be closed and  Dreamweaver minimised to the launch bar but it still will not register on other machines that it has been changed.
    - Also, until the  Dreamweaver program is closed on the machines, it will continue to open it's saved version of the file. 
    Example Scenario:
    - User 1 opens test.css (which is 2000 lines) and adds some code to the end of the file to bring it up to 2500 lines
    - Meanwhile User 2 opens test.css as well (opens as 2000 lines as User 1’s edits have not yet been saved) and adds in code to bring it to 2300 lines
    - User 1 saves his file and closes it - but  Dreamweaver is still open.
    - User 2 also saves his file and leaves  Dreamweaver  open.
    - The server will report the size and last edit of the file the same as User 2 as he was the last person to save it (and if you open from the Win7 Machine it will show as User 2’s 2300 line version)
    - If User 1 then open's the file again (from either the 'recent' in Dreamweaver OR clicking on the file directly in Finder...which version opens.... The version that User 1 saved! Not the true version on the server, but the version that User 1 edited and saved with 2500 lines in it.
    - Same for User 2, he will open 'his' version with 2300 lines in.
    Other information:
    - Files are opened directly from the server
    - Sometimes the users will save incrementally and re-open
    - Most of the time users will save incrementally and keep the files open
    - The users will never not save incrementally and just save when closing the file once finished
    - The users are usually working on the files all day
    - It is always the bottom lines of code that are lost. It could be a case of the two versions being mixed up and cutting off the newly added lines based on the line count (possibly).
    It is as if Dreamweaver is holding a cache of the version locally and then only properly looking back to the server when it has been completely closed. It is very difficult to see how the server is causing such an impact on these files, there are very few logs which are giving any indication to the root cause of the problems.
    Anyone know if this is a known issue?
    Is there a way that there can be a featured implemented on the server that doesn't allow another user to open a file if it is already open on another machine?
    Thanks

    Your server file handling has nothing, and really nothing to do with Adobe software. If files don't get locked for (over-)writing and/or lose connection to the program opening them, then your server is misconfigured. It's as plain and simple and that. Anything from "known file types"/ file associations not being set correctly, MIME types being botched, crooked user privileges and file permissions, missing Mac server extensions, delayed file writing on the server, generic network timeout issues and what have you. Either way, you have written a longwinded post with no real value since you haven't bothered to provide any proper technical info, most notably about the alleged server. Either way, the only way you can "fix" it is by straightening out your server and network configuration, not some magic switch in Adobe's software.
    Mylenium

  • Creating an xml file from recordset

    Hi...
    XML newbie here - so.
    Is it possible to create and xml file from a recordset?
    I need to create a datafeed of our e-commerce products.
    Also, some of the db data contains HTML Code (product
    description field),
    how will this effect the xml file?
    Another problem is that my xml file needs to contain url's
    for the products
    and product images. My ASP pages contain these URL in hard
    code and then
    pull the actual file names from the db
    Hope that makes some sense
    Thanks for any help
    Andy

    Hi David
    Thanks for your help.
    I think it will have to be option 1 as i am using Access DB.
    I don't know how to go about it but will serach good old
    Google.
    Here is my recordset below, that pulls the required data from
    Access.
    The product and product image URL's need to be in the xml
    file but only the
    product image name and product id are in the database, e.g
    image name
    (imagename.jpg) productid (21)
    The actual URL's are hardcoded in my ASP pages, e.g <img
    src="products/medium/<%=(RSDetails.Fields.Item("Image").Value)%>"
    Not sure if this makes things any clearer :-|
    Thanks Again
    Andy
    <%
    Dim RSdatafeed
    Dim RSdatafeed_numRows
    Set RSdatafeed = Server.CreateObject("ADODB.Recordset")
    RSdatafeed.ActiveConnection = MM_shoppingcart_STRING
    RSdatafeed.Source = "SELECT Products.Product,
    Products.Description,
    Products.Image, Products.image2, Products.ListPrice,
    Products.Price,
    Products.xml_feed, Manufacturers.Manufacturer,
    Shipping.ShippingCost FROM
    Shipping, Products INNER JOIN Manufacturers ON
    Products.ManufacturerID =
    Manufacturers.ManufacturerID WHERE
    (((Products.xml_feed)=No));"
    RSdatafeed.CursorType = 0
    RSdatafeed.CursorLocation = 2
    RSdatafeed.LockType = 1
    RSdatafeed.Open()
    RSdatafeed_numRows = 0
    %>
    "DEPearson" <[email protected]> wrote in
    message
    news:[email protected]
    > Andy,
    >
    > There are two ways you can create a xml file from a
    recordset
    >
    > 1. Is to code it using Server.CreateObject(XMLDOM)
    > 2. If you are using SQL server 2005, just request the RS
    returns as XML
    > data. using FOR XML AUTO after the where cause ( the
    best way with 2005
    > and
    > higher sql server)
    >
    > The db data containing HTML code should not effect your
    xml file, unless
    > it
    > is bad markup. You could wrap the data with
    <![CDATA[the data or html
    > markup, or javascript]]>
    >
    > If the url is a recordset field, then it will return
    with the xml data.
    > If
    > not you can create a storage procedure that will build
    your URL from the
    > data
    > in the database.
    >
    > It is best to use storage procedure (SP )for security
    reason when pulling
    > data
    > from a MS Sql server, make all calls to the database in
    a SP. Also be sure
    > to
    > validate the values in the querystrings before accepting
    them, check for
    > hack
    > code.
    >
    > David
    >

  • Creating an xdp file from flex/java application

    Hi,
    I have an application in Flex 4  and As 3.When I click a button in flex application I have to generate a file in java with
    extension xdp.When I try this locally(Run as java application) the file is generating  correctly.When i compile the applic
    ation and try it, the file is not writing correctly.Do someone have any idea about creating an xdp file from flex application?
    i am using blazeds to connect java and flex4.When i opens the file in notepad the file is writing correctly.There is only problem in openig an xdp file...
    please help me.

    specifically:
    Runtime.getRuntime().exec("filename.exe")

  • Creating an xml file from a playlist - message for iTunes staff

    When I created an xml file from a playlist I noticed that in the xml file the track name was merged with the artist name in this manner "I want you - Bob Dylan".
    That was hardly a problem as I could easily correct this in the FileMaker Pro environment.
    But subsequently I found out, that within iTunes the track name was similarly changed to the same format. Apparently this happened when iTunes created the xml file and inadvertently also changed the track name within iTunes.
    It can easily be corrected by entering File/Info, but I had over 10.000 songs in that list and it will take a lot of time. I have to do this, as I created earlier for each song a file path in FileMaker Pro, which are unrecognizable now.
    Could you please correct the xml file creating procedure?

    I must confess that I can't reproduce this result myself anymore.
    I created the xml file in iTunes via File/Library/Export Playlist/xml structure (I translate the Dutch terms loosely) and subsequently I imported the xml file into a Filemaker Pro via File/Import/xml.
    The xsl style sheet looks ok.
    It looks like a freak of nature.
    Still I have the evidence in my iTunes playlist, where I have another 9000 clicks to go to repair the damage.
    Let's forget about it, until it happens again.
    Thanks for your time.

  • How to create bulk configuration files from a template for staging?

    Hello,
    We have created a sample configuration for ISRG2 2901 Router.  The sample configuration is long, and with copy/paste it is possible to skip some lines, and it is difficult to ensure the configuration of every device is standardized due to this error possibility. What we are trying to achieve is first create a template from this sample configuration file, and then create configuration files for each device seperately and automatically. After creating this configuration instances, we want to be able to distribute the configuration files (and possibly the ios) to the devices during the staging phase. Since there are about 1000 2901 routers, creating configuration files is important?
    From searching we have found the following tools:
    1) CCE (Cisco Configuration Engine): This tool seems to be very efficient for distributing the created configuration files. We may use the serial number of the device, and it provides almost zero touch provisioning of the configuration files to the devices. Creating the configuration file from the template seems to be manual, i.e enter the ip addresses of the interfaces, the routing tables one by one for each device. How can we use velocity template for device configs?
    2) Ciscoworks LMS Prime: It is possible to create a baseline template for the devices, and after getting the backup configuration of the routers, it is possible to compare the actual configuration of the device with the baseline template, and understand if there is any difference with each other. This is indeed very useful in order to keep the configuration standardized, we again could not find a way to create bulk configuration files from the baseline template.
    3)  Solarwinds Config Generator: This tool is useful for creating a configuration file from a template, but again not for automatically creating configuration files, and needs manual intervention.
    4) Excel Macro: It seems that some people have achived to automatically create configuration files with using an excel macro, but we could not find a procedure or tip of how to achieving this.
    5) Pearl or TCL/TK Script: Again since we are not software developers but from networking field, it is difficult to achieve a working form of this scripts or codes due to to lack of documentation and development experience.
    So our problem comes down to creating a template from a sample configuration, and creating bulk configuration files from the template. Is there a specific tool or procedure to achive this purpose?
    Thanks in Advance,
    Best Regards,

    Hi,
    Try this one http://www.gen-it.net
    Regards,
    Stuart

  • New Files from Subclips problem

    I captured the first 15 minutes of a tape and made 7 subclips for various scenes and sections.
    Now I want to create new media files from those subclips.
    I have selected the subclips and opened Media Manager. The subclips do not use all of the original file and I can see that the 'Modified' size is smaller than the 'Original' size.
    I have tried numerous settings (I followed the manual for the first few attempts), but have yet to yield multiple new media files. I have had it dupicate the selected clips into a new project, but that just gives me the same subclips referencing a new slightly smaller media file named for the first clip of the group.
    What do I need to do to create new media files for each subclip?
    I am using FCP7. It has been a while, but I remember doing this without a problem in FCP6. Is there a bug in FCP7? Am I forgetting a special setting?

    Looks like I found the issue. All of the clips had continuous time code, so FCP grouped them into a single clip. After setting In & Out points to give a little space between each subclip it worked.
    If Apple considers the grouping of the clips to be helpful, they are way off the mark as far as I am concerned.

  • Create an excel file from java

    I am using Jakarta's POI to create an excel file from MySql. The POI works well when a samll amount of data was written from MySql (created .xls file less than 3500KB). The problem is when a large amount of data need to be written to an excel file, java.lang.OutOfMemoryError Exception in thread "main" appears. In my project, I really need to have a large amount of data to be wriiten ton excel file. Do somebody has good solution for it?
    Thanks

    What about using some text files like csv
    (comma-separated value) file? It is plain text but
    Excel (and other spreadsheet programs) will be able to
    read it.
    But then there will be no formatting and bells and
    whistles. It was just an idea.Excel will also read HTML <TABLE>'s, with full formatting. There are some extra tags for numeric formatting, also. Just create an HTML table, and save to a file with .xls extension, e.g.:
    <TABLE>
    <TR bgcolor="#00FF7F">
    <TH>Agency ID</TH>
    <TH>POS ID</TH>
    <TH>Machine Serial</TH>
    <TH>Disk Serial</TH>
    <TH>MAC ID</TH>
    <TH>System Manufacturer</TH>
    <TH>Machine Type</TH>
    <TH>BIOS Manufacturer</TH>
    <TH>BIOS Version</TH>
    <TH>BIOS Date</TH>
    </TR>
    <TR bgcolor="#9ACD32">
    <TD>1000</TD>
    <TD>1069</TD>
    <TD STYLE='vnd.ms-excel.numberformat:@'>US215199248</TD>
    <TD STYLE='vnd.ms-excel.numberformat:@'>5C5AE88F3</TD>
    <TD STYLE='vnd.ms-excel.numberformat:@'>000423155334</TD>
    <TD>Hewlett-Packard</TD>
    <TD>Desktop</TD>
    <TD>American Megatrends Inc.</TD>
    <TD>JA.01.03US</TD>
    <TD>07/19/2001</TD>
    </TR>
    </TABLE>

  • Creating an xml file from abap code

    Hello All,
    Please let me know which FM do I need to execute in order to create an XML file from my ABAP code ?
    Thanks in advance,
    Paul.

    This has been discussed before
    XML files from ABAP programs

  • Is there a way to run a script to create an RPD file from MDS XML files

    We would be interested in using the MDS XML format for the RPD file in saving it in our Subversion source code control system, and I have seen how to do this in the User documentation.
    Our question is whether or not there is a way to use a command line tool to recreate the rpd file without having to use the Admin tool, so that we can automate the deployment of the RPD file from source code control to QA and Production environments.
    If we check in the RPD file directly, then there is a way to automate the process, but we would prefer to use the MDS XML format since this allows us to save changes in text format, not binary, but we still need to be able to automate the process.
    In the Oracle Fusion Middleware XML Schema Reference for Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition document, I have found that there is a way to automate the creation of the MDS XML files from an RPD file using this command:
    biserverxmlgen -M -R repository_pathname [-P password] -D output_directory [-8] [-N] [-Q|-S]
    So my question is basically is there a way to reverse this process, to use some command line tool (or Weblogic Scripting or some other mechanism) to create the RPD file from the MDS XML files? Are there options on the biserverxmlexec command that will do what I am asking?

    Hey dmfairley,
    Thanks for the question. You can absolutely export the project as .mp3, as outlined in this resource:
    GarageBand Help: Export songs to disk
    http://help.apple.com/garageband/mac/10.0/#gbnd7cbf5ed9
    Export songs to disk
    You can export a project to your computer as a stereo audio file.
    Exported files can be reused in GarageBand to save processing resources by replacing or bypassing multiple regions, instruments, and effects. They can also be used with other music applications and devices, posted on the Internet (on a webpage, or in the iTunes Store, for example), added to an iTunes playlist, or uploaded to a mobile device such as iPhone or iPad.
    1. Choose Share > Export Song to Disk.
    2. To rename the exported file, select the name in the Save As field, then enter a new name.
    3. Choose a location to save the exported file from the Where pop-up menu.
    4. Select the format for the exported file (AAC, MP3, or AIFF).
    5. Choose the quality setting for the exported file from the Quality pop-up menu.
    6. Click Export.
    Thanks,
    Matt M.

  • How to create a PAR file from EAR file

    Hi,
       I have created an Web Dynpro Application . When i deploy it in Remote J2EE Engine, it will deploy as EAR file. It then runs as normal Web Application in Web browser. My requirement is to create an iView for my Web dynpro appn in EP. That is possible only by creating a PAR file. so How to create an PAR file from EAR in NWDS(NetWeaver Developer Studio).
    How to access the EAR file in NWDS or J2EE ?
    Thanks in Advance ,
    By
    Saravanan

    Hi,
    To create a iview,
    log on to portal, New iView and select SAP webdynpro iview.
    It will ask for namespace which is usually , local/Project Name
    and application name is the name of the application.
    We dont have to create par file for this requirement

  • Create a xml file from an internal table: CALL TRANSFORMATION

    Hello gurus,
    I want to create a xml file using data from scustom table. I will create an internal table and will select some records to it.
    I searched the forum and i discovered the call transformation, but when i execute the example program at the CALL TRANSFORMATION shows a dump screen.
    How we create a xml file from internal table??
    Please help me. I will mark the useful answers.

    I'm using if_ixml class to create xml documents
    TYPES: BEGIN OF xml_line,
             data(256) TYPE x,
           END OF xml_line.
    DATA: o_ixml          TYPE REF TO if_ixml,
          o_document      TYPE REF TO if_ixml_document,
          o_element       TYPE REF TO if_ixml_element,
          o_streamfactory TYPE REF TO if_ixml_stream_factory,
          o_ostream       TYPE REF TO if_ixml_ostream,
          o_renderer      TYPE REF TO if_ixml_renderer.
    DATA: t_xml_table     TYPE TABLE OF xml_line,
          v_xml_size      TYPE i.
    o_ixml = cl_ixml=>create( ).
    o_document = o_ixml->create_document( ).
    * The o_document have a set of methods to add elements, attributes, etc.
    o_element  = o_document->create_simple_element(
                      name = 'RootNode'
                      value = 'some text'
                      parent = o_document ).
    o_streamfactory = o_ixml->create_stream_factory( ).
    o_ostream = o_streamfactory->create_ostream_itable( table = t_xml_table ).
    o_renderer = o_ixml->create_renderer( ostream  = o_ostream document = o_document ).
    o_renderer->render( ).
    v_xml_size = o_ostream->get_num_written_raw( ).
    CALL METHOD cl_gui_frontend_services=>gui_download
      EXPORTING
        bin_filesize = v_xml_size
        filename     = 'C:a.xml'
        filetype     = 'BIN'
      CHANGING
        data_tab     = t_xml_table.

Maybe you are looking for

  • Help needed extracting information from command output using sed

    I want to be able to pipe the output of: playerctl metadata into sed and extract only the relevant information. I have a working knowledge of regular expressions but I'm not how to get sed to only output the matched text. For reference, this is an ex

  • c:redirect not working?

    Hi folk, I'm new to JSP. We use JSTL to parse XML file at work. We use WebSphere and Java 1.4.x. It seem the <c:redirect> tag is not working. Someone point out somewhere, that this is a know bug using WebSphere. But I still have doubt. I'm more use t

  • Does noboby know!!! program changes in logic with kontakt3 instrument banks

    Hi all. im having real trouble understanding program changes from the events list in logic pro in conjunction with Kontakt 3. i have a region playing a bar of a violin legato then a bar of staccato then a bar of tremolo (just for example) using konta

  • How to impl. Enter key (when fill some input text field and then submit)

    I have some input field for login user in application and then when user submit on enter I want to login process start. Which is my solution for this? Now, user can login process start with click on Log in button. Thx.

  • Recurring document in FBD1

    Hi everybody, I have created a recurring document in TC: FBD1 with first run date is 01-08-2009. Now i want the invoice to be posted in 31-07-2009. system is not allowing to post this invoice. How to change this first run date from 01-08-2009 to 31-0