Lastlog mysteries

Hi,
I recently stumbled over a gigantic lastlog file in /private/var/log of about 4.5 GB . Using a small perl script (see at the bottom) I could read lastlog, but found only a few dozen lines with login info.
I deleted the file as root (now filesize 1), logged out and in again.
Now the filesize was 28868 containing only two lines of text with my last login info. I understand that this is a "sparse" file containing lots of zeroes which upon backup are ignored by tar aso. But 32K for two lines of text is 32K.
I'm puzzled by all this. What is the sense of a logfile with login info which is not readable by normal means and consumes **** of disk space ? Can anybody enligthen me ?
#!/usr/bin/perl -w
require 'ctime.pl';
$utSize = 28;
$utTemplate = 'l A8 A16';
$utBuffer = ' ' x $utSize;
$uid = 0;
open (LASTLOG, '</private/var/log/lastlog') || die "can't open lastlog ($!)\n";
while (sysread (LASTLOG, $utBuffer, $utSize) == $utSize)
($time, $line, $host) = unpack ($utTemplate, $utBuffer);
if ($time != 0)
$user = (getpwuid ($uid))[0];
print "$user on $line ";
print $host eq '' ? "(local)" : "from $host";
print " at ", &ctime ($time);
$uid++;
close (LASTLOG) || die "can't close lastlog ($!)\n";
OSX Server   Mac OS X (10.4.8)  

Sir, please !!
> But it does not answer why lastlog is redundant
with wtmp
It isn't redundant. They store different data. OK,
fair enough, there is some overlap, but the
fundamental data is different.
Which fundamental data ?
> why unlike other log files its a binary
It should be binary. A text file is too easy
to edit to hide your tracks (if you're trying to hide
the fact you were there).
You need root access to edit log files. If you have hacked the root password you can do anything anywhere anyway.
> why a sparse file
No idea.
Correct.
why so gigantic over time
Because it's perpetual and doesn't get cleaned up.
Right or wrong I'm not saying.
Thats the observation, not the explanation.
> why it is not rolled in /etc/weekly like other
log files
Because it's a binary file, not a text file like
other log files. In addition, because it's keeping
state, you can't just remove the old file and start a
new one without risking corruption of the file.
You cannot gzip a binary file, no ?
That's not to say there shouldn't be some
process for managing the file, but it's not as simple
as you might think.
Your estimated guess. I miss the knowledge, though.
In fact there is ample discussion about lastlog and its design flaws and the backup and insane space consumption problems a sparse file implies (http://www.redhat.com/archives/fedora-test-list/2005-June/msg00324.html ) . Listen to this one:
"And the file is just ancient cruft anyway. It stores the last login
time, terminal device (or X server), and remote host for each user. I
found a couple of non-glibc utilities that write to the file
(dhclient, useradd), but only one that actually cares to read it
(lastlog(8), which can only be run by root). If this thing went away
tomorrow, I doubt anyone would notice. Meaningful user login auditing
is done with other tools. Note also that this is a BSD feature, and isn't part of the SUSv2 spec. In 1979 on a VAX with 16 bit UIDs, this might have been a
worthwhile use of space (I found a 3BSD header that defined the
lastlog struct as a 12 bytes; the current glibc structure is 292 bytes
long). On a modern 64 bit linux, it leads to the 1.2TB monstrosity
we're shouting about. To all the "not a bug" folks: if you were
charged with deciding on a file format for storing 2 strings and a
time for each user, would this honestly be your choice?
Finally, note that its functionality is 100% duplicated by the wtmp
file and last(1) tool anyway (except for the misfeature of not storing the
user name and thus being unable to track changes in the passwd file).
One could duplicate lastlog(8) using last(1) with a few lines of perl. This file is a silly side effect of the change to 32 bit UIDs, and needs to be fixed."
The lastlog file is a *nix dinosaur left over from ancient times. OSX should do better. Anybody from Apple listening ?

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    I have tried the Belkin flip (regular w/remote button - no video - and the Mac Mini version - chaos! ... opening CD trays, volume up and down, auto monitor switching). I am not alone in that experience as I have found out!
    I tried the iogear 2 port USB KVM - no video. Customer support was helpful but unable to solve the problem as they just discovered that it wont support the Studio Displays. I was impressed with their efforts though.
    I am currently connecting my Studio Display to the G5 by a VGA to DVI Apple connector.
    All this said, is there a reasonably priced KVM that will handle this set-up?
    All I need is a 2 port USB KVM. It doesn't have to be pretty either!
    Thanks
    G5/G4   Mac OS X (10.4.7)   Apple 21" Studio Display

  • The mysteries of auto sleep

    When I purchased my iMac it came with Leopard 10.5.6 and auto sleep worked without problems, but after updating to 10.5.7 my iMac no longer went to sleep automatically and this continued after 10.5.8. Updated my iMac to Snow Leopard 10.6, everything went perfectly and to my surprise auto sleep worked absolutely perfectly, whatever I set it too. But, I updated to 10.6.1 and auto sleep has gone again. It's not a big deal, but I've been really impressed with Snow Leopard and so surprised to see this problem come back. Tried most of the suggestions that people make, without success and beyond Apple programs, have very little installed on my system. Just wondered if anyone had any brilliant ideas on this?

    This is for a Mac that won't sleep.
    Here is Apple's KB article HT1776 with their tips.
    Mine follow;
    USB devices and hubs often cause Macs to not sleep or wake quickly from sleep (notably HP printers and scanners, HP all in ones, and Cannon scanners). Disconnect all USB except for keyboard and mouse and try. If it sleeps, add one back at a time testing after each one to find the culprit.
    If you've set your Mac to receive faxes, it may not be able to sleep. It might also have a damaged preferences file.
    If you use your Mac for faxing, open System Preferences. click Print & Fax, click the Faxing tab, and uncheck the Receive Faxes On This Computer box.
    If that doesn't work or you've never faxed on your Mac, go to Finder/Hard Drive /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration and delete the com.apple.PowerManagement.plist and com..apple.AutoWake.plist files (if your Mac asks, type your admin. password).
    If the latter file isn't present in the folder, go to user name(probably your name)/Library/Preferences, delete the com.apple.systemuiserver.plist file, and reboot your Mac.
    Hope this helps!
    P.S. One member here reported this (Michael Gleason);
    "I have had this problem with my IMac G5. It is surprisingly irritating. LaCie's Silverkeeper backup software was the cause. By default it gave itself permission to wake up the computer to check if a backup was needed. Do you have this or a similar program installed which has scheduled activities including wake-up permissions as an option?"
    Dave Hamilton provided this link, xlr8yourmac.com, to a member, which addresses failure of deep sleep with some users that updated and added new FireWire and USB card.
    Also, here is Apple KB article TA2469 about PCI cards and sleep.
    tomhorvat adds this; After few days of messing around I found out that I had desktop background (wallpaper) set to change every 1 minute.
    After unchecking "Change picture..." in system preferences (under Desktop/Screen saver), my powerbook went to sleep all by itself.
    Tristan Currier noticed this; "I have a Canon printer(shared) and my imac would not sleep. I opened up printer/fax in system prefs and noticed it said the printer was in use when it was off. Opened up the printer queue and noticed about 7 pending documents. Deleted them all and now it sleeps.
    Check the printer queue!"
    Allan Jones says "sometimes there is Network activity: launch System Preferences > Energy Saver > "Options" tab and uncheck "Wake for Ethernet network administrator access."
    Good Luck!  DALE

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