Need Help With Basics of SQL

Hey I'm trying to get a working understanding of some of the basics behind SQL, I've composed a few questions that I think may help me with this. Anyone that can help me with any of them will greatly help me thanks.
1. How to create synonym for tables?
2. How to describe the structure of tables?
3. How to list the contents of tables?
4. How to create a table named with the same structure as another table?
5. How to copy rows with less than a certain criteria in value (e.g. Price<$5.00) into another table?
6. How to change the data type to e.g. NUMBER(6)?
7. How to add a new column named with data type e.g. VARCHAR2(10)?
8. How to change a specific field within a table (e.g. For ORDER_NUMBER 12489, change the C_NUMBER to 315)?
9. How to delete a specific row from a table?
10. How to declare a column as the primary key of a table and call it e.g. PK_something?
11. How to show certain columns when another column is less than a certain criteria in value (e.g. Price<$5.00)?
12. How to show certain columns with another column having a certain item class e.g. HW or AP?
13. How to list certain columns when another column e.g. price is between two values?
14. How to list certain columns when another column e.g. price is negative?
15. How to use the IN operator to find certain columns (e.g. first and last name of customers who are serviced by a certain ID)
16. How to find certain columns when one of the columns begins with a particular letter (e.g. A)
18. How to list the contents of the a table sorted in ascending order of item class and, within each item class, sorted in descending order of e.g. price?
19. How to do a count of column in a table?
20. How to sum a column and make rename is something?
21. How to do a count of a column in a table (without repeats e.g. if a certain number repeats more than once than to only count it once)?
22. How to use a subquery to find certain fields in columns when the another column’s fields values are greater than e.g. its average price?

848290 wrote:
Hey I'm trying to get a working understanding of some of the basics behind SQL, I've composed a few questions that I think may help me with this. Anyone that can help me with any of them will greatly help me thanks.To use the terminology you have in those questions, you must already have a basic understanding of SQL, so you have exposed yourself as not being the author of such questions.
Please do not ask homework questions without having at least attempted to answer them yourself first and show where you're struggling.

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    Okay, here we go again, repost, hopefully okay this time:
    Hi Madhu, okay, just got to work: I am using TOAD and working in Oracle 10g. Here is my table structure and the query i use to try and get what I am looking for:
    There is one extra table but that is only used to link these two tables listed below so i didn't bother posting it.
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    TX_ID 1 NUMBER (9) N
    TX_TYPE 13 VARCHAR2 (4 Char) N
    ColumnName ColID PK Null DataType
    TX_TYPE 22 N VARCHAR2 (4 Char)
    TX_ID 1 1 N NUMBER (9)
    TX_DATE 2 N CHAR (8 Byte)
    REAL_TIME 10 N NUMBER (10)
    DURATION 12 N NUMBER (10)________________________________________
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    1752223 20100710 667 12 281 7 1234 00:11:07:12 00:04:41:07 00:11:07:10 00:04:41:07 667 10 281 7
    1846501 20100710 1071 13 335 9 1234 00:17:51:13 00:05:35:09 00:17:50:09 00:05:35:09 1070 9 335 9
    2001102 20100710 1525 6 249 14 1234 00:25:25:06 00:04:09:14 00:25:22:08 00:04:09:14 1522 8 249 14
    3246669 20100710 1800 0 586 2 1235 00:30:00:00 00:09:46:02 00:30:00:00 00:09:46:02 1800 0 586 2
    4456822 20100710 2492 16 276 5 1235 00:41:32:16 00:04:36:05 00:41:32:16 00:04:36:05 2492 16 276 5
    1253168 20100710 2890 15 222 17 1235 00:48:10:15 00:03:42:17 00:48:10:15 00:03:42:17 2890 15 222 17
    1112456 20100710 3277 18 297 0 1235 00:54:37:18 00:04:57:00 00:54:35:10 00:04:57:00 3275 10 297 0
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

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    if ((isset($_POST["MM_update"])) && ($_POST["MM_update"] == "doit_form")) {
      $updateSQL = sprintf("UPDATE users SET total=%s WHERE id=%s",
                           GetSQLValueString($_POST['id'], "int"));

    Seeing only part of your code, it's impossible to debug.
    However, your approach is wrong anyway. All you need to do is to add the new value to the old one in the SQL query.
    $updateSQL = sprintf("UPDATE users SET total=(total+%s) WHERE id=%s",
                           GetSQLValueString($_POST['fieldName'], "double"),
                           GetSQLValueString($_POST['id'], "int"));
    $_POST['fieldName'] is the new value being added. Use "double" if the value contains a decimal point. If it's an integer, change "double" to "int".

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