G/L Accounts and Postings.

I always get confused about the which accounts are posted to during entire purchasing cycle. Means during GR, IV,GI ,PAYMENT OF DUTIES, CENVAT ACCOUNTS etc.
WHICH of them are debited and which of them are credited?
Can anybody Please suggest me any simple way to remember those postings.
Also from the perspective of financial accounting whats is Debit and Credit?
When to credit /debit certain G/L account in a process.
Regards,
DEEPIKA

Deepika:
Purchasing Cycle Entries
  1. When PO is created :
No Entry -
  2. When GR is posted 
      Inventory Account Dr (Transaction Key BSX in OBYC)
      GRIR account Cr (T.Key WRX in T-code OBYC)
  3. When Invoice is posted
      GRIR account Dr.
      Vendor account  Cr.
  4. Payment made to Vendor
      Vendor A/c Dr
      Bank A/c Cr
Some basic guidelines: What to Debit and what to credit:
In case if an account is an expense item: Debit an increase in the expense (telephone bill), credit a decrese in expense
In case if an account is an asset: Debit an increase in the value, credit a reduction in the value of the asset
In case an account is a liability: Credit an increase in libility and vice-versa
In case of reveue account like sales revenues: Credit an increase and vice-versa
Payment of duties: is an expense, so it should be debited, cash should be credited (expense increases, debit, cash is an asset, it decreases credit) - see the above logic.
Goods receipt: goods/inventory = assets increases, debit it.
Assign points if info helps
Vj

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    Explain the importance of asset classes. Give examples?
    The asset class is the main criterion for classifying assets. Every asset
    must be assigned to only one asset class. Examples of asset class are
    Plant& Machinery, Furniture & Fixtures, Computers etc. The asset class
    also contains the Gl accounts which are debited when any asset is
    procured. It also contains the gl accounts for depreciation calculation,
    scrapping etc
    Whenever you create an asset master you need to mention the asset
    class for which you are creating the required asset. In this manner
    whenever any asset transaction happens the gl accounts attached to the
    asset class is automatically picked up and the entry passed.
    You can also specify certain control parameters and default values for
    depreciation calculation and other master data in each asset class.
    How are depreciation keys defined?
    The specifications and parameters that the system requires to calculate
    depreciation amounts are entered in Calculation methods. Calculation
    methods replace the internal calculation key of the depreciation key.
    Depreciation keys are defaulted in Asset Master from the asset class.
    Refer to the configuration for more details of how depreciation is
    calculated.
    A company has its books prepared based on Jan –Dec calendar year
    for reporting to its parent company. It is also required to report
    accounts to tax authorities based on April- March. Can assets be
    managed in another depreciation area based on a different fiscal
    year variant?
    No. Assets accounting module cannot manage differing fiscal year variant
    which has a different start date (January for book depreciation and April
    for tax depreciation) and different end date (December for book
    depreciation and March for tax depreciation). In this case you need to
    implement the special purpose ledger.
    What are the special steps and care to be taken in Fixed asset data
    migration into SAP system especially when Profit center accounting
    is active?
    Data migration is slightly different from a normal transaction which
    happens in Asset accounting module.
    Normally, in asset accounting the day to day transactions is posted with
    values through FI bookings and at the same time the asset reconciliation
    is updated online realtime. Whereas In data Migration the asset master
    is updated with values through a transaction code called as AS91. The
    values updated on the master are Opening Gross value and the
    accumulated depreciation. The reconciliation GL account is not
    automatically updated at this point of time.
    The reconciliation accounts (GL codes) are updated manually through
    another transaction code called as OASV.
    If profit center is active, then after uploading assets through AS91 you
    should transfer the asset balances to profit center accounting through a
    program.
    Thereafter you remove the Asset GL code (reconciliation accounts) from
    the 3KEH table for PCA and update the Asset reconciliation account (GL
    code) through OASV.
    After this step you again update the Asset reconciliation account in the
    3KEH table.
    The reason you remove the Asset reconciliation code from 3KEH table is
    that double posting will happen to PCA when you update the Asset
    reconciliation manually.
    Is it possible to calculate multiple shift depreciation? Is any special
    configuration required?
    Yes it is possible to calculate multiple shift depreciation in SAP for all
    types of depreciation except unit of production. No special configuration
    is required.
    How do you maintain multiple shift depreciation in asset master?
    The following steps are needed to maintain multiple shift depreciation:
    1. The variable depreciation portion as a percentage rate is to be
    maintained in the detail screen of the depreciation area.
    2. The multiple shift factor is to be maintained in the time dependent
    data in the asset master record. This shift factor is multiplied by
    the variable portion of ordinary depreciation.
    Once you have done the above the SAP system calculates the total
    depreciation amount as follows:-
    Depreciation amount = Fixed depreciation + (variable depreciation * shift
    factor)
    Let’s say you have changed the depreciation rates in one of the
    depreciation keys due to changes in legal requirements. Does
    system automatically calculate the planned depreciation as per the
    new rate?
    No. System does not automatically calculate the planned depreciation
    after the change is made. You need to run a program for recalculation of
    planned depreciation.
    What are evaluation groups?
    The evaluation groups are an option for classifying assets for reports or
    user defined match code (search code). You can configure 5 different
    evaluation groups. You can update these evaluation groups on to the
    asset master record.
    What are group assets?
    The tax requirements in some countries require calculation of
    depreciation at a higher group or level of assets. For this purpose you
    can group assets together into so-called group assets.
    What are the steps to be taken into account during a depreciation
    run to ensure that the integration with the general ledger works
    smoothly?
    For each depreciation area and company code, specify the following:
    1 The frequency of posting depreciation(monthly,quarterly etc)
    2 CO account assignment (cost center)
    3 For each company code you must define a document type for
    automatic depreciation posting: This document type requires its
    own external number range.
    4 You also need to specify the accounts for posting. (Account
    determination)
    Finally to ensure consistency between Asset Accounting and Financial
    Accounting, you must process the batch input session created by the
    posting report. If you fail to process the batch input session, an error
    message will appear at the next posting run.
    The depreciation calculation is a month end process which is run in
    batches and then once the batch input is run the system posts the
    accounting entries into Finance.
    How do you change fiscal year in Asset Accounting?
    n Run The fiscal year change program which would open new annual
    value fields for each asset. i e next year
    Ÿ The earliest you can start this program is in the last posting period of
    the current year.
    Ÿ You have to run the fiscal year change program for your whole
    company code.
    Ÿ You can only process a fiscal year change in a subsequent year if the
    previous year has already been closed for business.
    Take care not to confuse the fiscal year change program with year-end
    closing for accounting purposes. This fiscal year change is needed only in
    Asset Accounting for various technical reasons.
    Is it possible to have depreciation calculated to the day?
    Yes it is possible. You need to switch on the indicator “Dep to the day” in
    the depreciation key configuration.
    Is it possible to ensure that no capitalization be posted in the
    subsequent years?
    Yes it is possible. You need to set it in the depreciation key
    configuration.
    How are Capital Work in Progress and Assets accounted for in SAP?
    Capital WIP is referred to as Assets under Construction in SAP and are
    represented by a specific Asset class. Usually depreciation is not charged
    on Capital WIP.
    All costs incurred on building a capital asset can be booked to an
    Internal Order and through the settlement procedure can be posted onto
    an Asset Under Construction. Subsequently on the actual readiness of
    the asset for commercial production, the Asset Under Construction gets
    capitalized to an actual asset.
    The company has procured 10 cars. You want to create asset
    masters for each of this car. How do you create 10 asset masters at
    the same time?
    While creating asset master there is a field on the initial create screen
    called as number of similar assets. Update this field with 10. When you
    finally save this asset master you will get a pop up asking whether you
    want to maintain different texts for these assets. You can update
    different details for all the 10 cars.
    FI-MM-SD Integration
    How do you go about setting the FI MM account determination ?
    FI MM settings are maintained in transaction code OBYC. Within these
    there are various transaction keys to be maintained like BSX, WRX,
    GBB, PRD etc. In each of these transaction keys you specify the GL
    accounts which gets automatically passed at the time of entry.
    Few examples could be: BSX- Stands for Inventory Posting Debit
    GBB-Standsfor Goods Issue/Scrapping/delivery
    of goods etc
    PRD- Stands for Price Differences.
    At what level is the FI-MM, FI-SD account determination settings?
    They are at the chart of accounts level.
    What are the additional settings required while maintaining or
    creating the GL codes for Inventory accounts?
    In the Inventory GL accounts (Balance sheet) you should switch on the
    ‘Post automatically only’ tick. It is also advisable to maintain the
    aforesaid setting for all FI-MM accounts and FI-SD accounts. This helps
    in preserving the sanctity of those accounts and prevents from having
    any difference between FI and MM, FI and SD.
    What is Valuation and Account assignment in SAP?
    This is actually the link between Materials Management and Finance.
    The valuation in SAP can be at the plant level or the company code level.
    If you define valuation at the plant level then you can have different
    prices for the same material in the various plants. If you keep it at the
    company code level you can have only price across all plants.
    Valuation also involves the Price Control .Each material is assigned to a
    material type in Materials Management and every material is valuated
    either in Moving Average Price or Standard Price in SAP. These are the
    two types of price control available.
    What is Valuation Class?
    The Valuation Class in the Accounting 1 View in Material Master is the
    main link between Material Master and Finance. This Valuation Class
    along with the combination of the transaction keys (BSX,WRX,GBB,PRD )
    defined above determine the GL account during posting.
    We can group together different materials with similar properties by
    valuation class. Eg Raw material,Finsihed Goods, Semi Finished
    We can define the following assignments in customizing :
    All materials with same material type are assigned to just one valuation
    class.
    Different materials with the same material type can be assigned to
    different valuation classes.
    Materials with different material types are assigned to a single valuation
    class.
    Can we change the valuation class in the material master once it is
    assigned?
    Once a material is assigned to a valuation class in the material master
    record, we can change it only if the stocks for that material are nil. If the
    stock exists for that material, then we cannot change the valuation class.
    In such a case, if the stock exists, we have to transfer the stocks or issue
    the stocks and make the stock nil for the specific valuation class. Then
    only we will be able to change the valuation class.
    Does the moving average price change in the material master during
    issue of the stock assuming that the price control for the material is
    Moving Average?
    The moving average price in the case of goods issue remains unchanged.
    Goods issue are always valuated at the current moving average price. It
    is only in goods receipt that the moving average price might change. A
    goods issue only reduces the total quantity and the total value in relation
    to the price and the moving price remains unchanged. Also read the
    next question to learn more about this topic.
    If the answer to the above question is ‘Yes’, then list the scenario in
    which the moving average price of the material in the material
    master changes when the goods are issued.
    The moving average price in the material master changes in the scenario
    of Split Valuation which is sometimes used by many organizations. If the
    material is subject to split valuation, the material is managed as Several
    partial stocks and each partial stock is valuated separately.
    In split valuation, the material with valuation header record will have ‘v’
    moving average price. This is where the individual stocks of a material
    are managed cumulatively. Here two valuation types are created, one
    valuation type can have ‘v’ (MAP) and the other valuation type can have
    ‘s’(standard price).
    In this case, whenever the goods are issued from the respective valuation
    types, always the MAP for the valuation header changes.
    What is the accounting entry in the Financial books of accounts
    when the goods are received in unrestricted use stock? Also
    mention the settings to be done in the ‘Automatic postings’ in SAP
    for the specific G/L accounts.
    On receipt of the goods in unrestricted-use stock, the Inventory account
    is debited and the GR/IR account gets credited. In customization, in the
    automatic postings, the Inventory G/L account is assigned to the
    Transaction event key BSX and the GR/IR account is assigned to the
    Transaction event key WRX.
    If a material has no material code in SAP, can you default the G/L
    account in Purchase order or it has to be manually entered?.
    If a material has no material code in SAP, we can still, default the G/L
    account with the help of material groups. We can assign the valuation
    class to a material group and then in FI-automatic posting, we can
    assign the relevant G/L account in the Transaction event key. The
    assignment of a valuation class to a material group enables the system to
    determine different G/L accounts for the individual material groups.
    What is the procedure in SAP for Initial stock uploading? Mention
    the accounting entries also.
    Initial stock uploading in SAP from the legacy system is done with
    inventory movement type 561( a MM transaction which is performed).
    Material valuated at standard price: For a material valuated at
    standard price, the initial entry of inventory data is valuated on the basis
    of standard price in the material master. If you enter an alternative value
    at the time of the movement type 561, then the system posts the
    difference to the price difference account.
    Material valuated at moving average price: The initial entry of
    inventory data is valuated as follows : If you enter a value when
    uploading the initial data, the quantity entered is valuated at this price.
    If you do not enter a value when entering initial data, then the quantity
    entered is valuated at the MAP present in the material master.
    The accounting entries are: Inventory account is debited and Inventory
    Historical upload account is credited.
    How do you configure FI-SD account determination?
    The FI-SD account determination happens through an access sequence.
    The system goes about finding accounts from more specific criteria to
    less specific criteria.
    This is the sequence it would follow:
    1) It will first access and look for the combination of Customer
    accounts assignment grp/ Material account assignment grp/
    Account key.
    2) If it does not find the accounts for the first combination it will look
    for Customer account assignment grp and account key
    combination.
    3) Furthermore, if it does not find accounts for the first 2 criteria’s
    then it will look for Material account assignment grp/Account key.
    4) If it does not find accounts for the all earlier criteria’s then finally it
    will look for Account key and assign the GL code.
    Thus posting of Sales Invoices into FI are effected on the basis of a
    combination of Sales organization, Account type, or Customer and
    Material Account assignment groups and following are the options
    available.
    a. Customer AAG/Material AAG/Account type
    b. Material AAG/Account type
    c. Customer AAG/Account type
    For each of this option you can define a Gl account. Thus the system
    uses this gl account to automatically pass the entries.
    Logistics Invoice Verification
    Can you assign multiple G/L accounts in the Purchase order for the
    same line item?
    Yes, we can assign multiple G/L accounts in the Purchase order for the
    same line item. The costs can be allocated on a percentage or quantity
    basis. If the partial goods receipt and partial invoice receipt has already
    taken place, then the partial invoice amount can be distributed
    proportionally, i.e. evenly among the account assigned items of a
    Purchase order. Alternatively the partial invoice amount can be
    distributed on a progressive fill-up basis, i.e. the invoiced amount is
    allocated to the individual account assignment items one after the other.
    What is Credit memo and subsequent debit in Logistics Invoice
    verification?
    The term credit memo refers to the credit memo from the vendor.
    Therefore posting a credit memo always leads to a debit posting on the
    vendor account. Credit memos are used if the quantity invoiced is higher
    than the quantity received or if part of the quantity was returned.
    Accounting entries are : Vendor account is debited and GR/IR account is
    credited.
    Subsequent debit : If a transaction has already been invoiced and
    additional costs are invoiced later, then subsequent debit is necessary. In
    this case you can debit the material with additional costs, i.e. GR/IR
    account debit and Vendor account credit. When entering the Subsequent
    debit, if there is no sufficient stock coverage, only the portion for the
    available stock gets posted to the stock account and rest is posted to the
    price difference account.
    What do you mean by Invoice parking, Invoice saving and Invoice
    confirmation?
    Invoice parking : Invoice Parking is a functionality which allows you to
    create incomplete documents and the system does not check whether the
    entries are balanced or not. An accounting documents is also not created
    when the invoice is in parked mode.
    Thus you can create incomplete documents and then post it later to
    accounting when you feel it is complete. You can even rectify the Parked
    invoice. This feature is used by many companies as on many occasions
    all data relating to the invoice might not be available.
    Invoice saving : This is also called Invoice processing or Invoice posting.
    The accounting document gets created when the invoice is posted in SAP.
    Invoice confirmation : There is no terminology in SAP as Invoice
    confirmation.
    What are Planned delivery costs and Unplanned delivery costs?
    Planned delivery costs: are entered at the time of Purchase order. At
    goods receipt, a provision is posted to the freight or customs clearing
    account.
    e.g. FRE is the account key for freight condition, hence the system can
    post the freight charges to the relevant freight revenue account and FR3
    is the account key for Customs duty, hence the system can post the
    customs duty to the relevant G/L account.
    These account keys are assigned to the specific condition types in the
    MM Pricing schema.
    In terms of Invoice verification : If the freight vendor and the material
    vendor is the same : then we can choose the option : Goods service items
    + Planned delivery costs.
    If the freight vendor is different from the material vendor: then for
    crediting only the delivery costs, we can choose the option: Planned
    delivery costs.
    Unplanned delivery costs: are the costs which are not specified in the
    Purchase order and are only entered when you enter the invoice.
    What is the basis on which the apportionment is done of unplanned
    delivery costs?
    Unplanned delivery costs are either uniformly distributed among the
    items or posted to a separate G/L account.
    For a material subjected to Moving average price, the unplanned delivery
    costs are posted to the stock account, provided sufficient stock coverage
    exists.
    For a material subjected to Standard price, the unplanned delivery costs
    are posted to the Price difference account.
    There are cases where Invoice verification is done first before the
    Goods receipt is made for the purchase order . In these cases with
    what values would the Goods receipt be posted ?
    Since the invoice verification has been done first the Goods Receipts will
    be valued with the Invoice value.
    FI Month End Closing Activities
    What are the Month End Closing Activities in Finance?
    1. Recurring Documents.
    a) Create Recurring documents
    b) Create Batch Input for Posting Recurring Documents
    c) Run the Batch Input Session
    2. Posting Accruals or Provisions entries at month end
    3. Managing the GR/IR Account-Run the GR/Ir Automatic Clearing
    4. Foreign Currency Open Item Revaluation-Revalue Open Items in
    AR.AP
    5. Maintain Exchange Rates
    6. Run Balance Sheets –Run Financial Statement Version
    7. Reclassify Payables and Receivables if necessary
    8. Run the Depreciation Calculation
    9. Fiscal Year Change of Asset Accounting if it is year end
    10. Run the Bank Reconciliation
    11. Open Next Accounting Period
    Controlling Module
    Explain the organizational assignment in the controlling module?
    Company codes are assigned to the controlling area. A controlling area
    is assigned to the operating concern.
    Controlling Area is the umbrella under which all controlling activities of
    Cost Center Accounting, Product costing, Profitability Analysis and Profit
    Center are stored.
    Operating Concern is the highest node in Profitability Analysis
    What is primary Cost element and secondary cost element?
    Every Profit and Loss GL account that needs to be controlled has to be
    defined as a cost element in SAP. Just as in FI General Ledger Accounts
    exist, in Controlling we have Cost element.
    Each FI General Ledger Account that is a Profit and Loss Account is also
    created as a Cost element in SAP.
    Primary Cost Elements are those which are created from FI general
    Ledger Accounts and impact the financial accounts eg. Travelling
    expenses, consumption account infact, any Profit and Loss GL account
    Secondary Cost Elements are those which are created only in
    controlling and does not affect the financials of the company. It is used
    for internal reporting only. The postings to these accounts do not affect
    the Profit or Loss of the company.
    The following categories exist for secondary cost elements:
    21 Internal Settlement:
    Cost elements of this category is used to settle order costs to objects in
    controlling such as cost centers, pa segments etc.
    31 Order/Results Analysis:
    Used to calculate WIP on the order/project
    41 Overhead
    Used to calculate indirect costs from cost centers to orders
    42. Assessment
    Used to calculate costs during assessment
    43 Internal Activity Allocation
    Used to allocate costs during internal activity allocation such as Machine
    Labour etc
    What are cost objects?
    A cost object means a cost or a revenue collector wherein all the costs or
    revenues are collected for a particular cost object. Examples of this could
    be cost center, production order, internal order, projects, sales order
    So whenever you look at any controlling function the basic thing you
    need to ask yourself is What is the cost element(expense) I want to
    control and what is the cost object ( i.e. either the production order, sales
    order, internal order) I am using to control this cost element. Sounds
    confusing read it again it is very simple
    Controlling is all about knowing the cost element and the cost
    object. Every time pose this question to yourself what is the cost
    element what is the cost object.
    At the end of the period all costs or revenues in the cost object are settled
    to their respective receivers which could be a gl account, a cost center,
    profitability analysis or asset.
    It is very important that you understand this otherwise you would
    struggle to understand Controlling.
    Cost Center Accounting:
    How is cost center accounting related to profit center?
    In the master data of the Cost Center there is a provision to enter the
    profit center. This way all costs which flow to the cost center are also
    captured in the profit center.
    Cost centers are basically created to capture costs e.g. admin cost center,
    canteen cost center etc
    Profit centers are created to capture cost and revenue for a particular
    plant, business unit or product line.
    What is a cost element group?
    Cost element group is nothing but a group of cost elements which help
    one to track and control cost more effectively. You can make as many
    number of cost element groups as you feel necessary by combining
    various logical cost elements.
    What is a cost center group?
    In a similar line the cost center group is also a group of cost centers
    which help one to track and control the cost of a department more
    effectively. You can make as many number of cost centers as you feel
    necessary by combining various logical cost centers
    Infact you can use various combinations of cost center group with the
    cost element group to track and control your costs per department or
    across departments
    What is the difference between Distribution and Assessment?
    Distribution uses the original cost element for allocating cost to the
    sender cost center. Thus on the receiving cost center we can see the
    original cost element from the sender cost center. Distribution only
    allocates primary cost.
    Assessment uses assessment cost element No 43 defined above to
    allocate cost. Thus various costs are summarized under a single
    assessment cost element. In receiver cost center the original cost
    breakup from sender is not available. Assessment allocates both primary
    as well as secondary cost.
    What are the other activities in Cost center?
    If you have a manufacturing set up, entering of Activity prices per cost
    center/activity type is an important exercise undertaken in Cost center
    accounting.
    What is an Activity Type?
    Activity types classify the activities produced in the cost centers.
    Examples of Activity Type could be Machine, Labour, Utilities
    You want to calculate the activity price through system? What are
    the requirements for that?
    In the activity type master you need to select price indicator 1 – Plan
    price, automatically based on activity.
    When activity price is calculated through system whether activity
    price is shown as fixed or variable?
    Normally when activity price is calculated through system it is shown as
    fixed activity price since primary cost are planned as activity independent
    costs.
    What is required to be done if activity price is to be shown both
    fixed and variable?
    In this case you need to plan both activity independent cost which are
    shown as fixed costs and activity dependent costs which are shown as
    variable costs.
    Is it possible to calculate the planned activity output through
    system?
    Yes. It is possible to calculate the planned activity output through
    system by using Long term Planning process in PP module.
    Explain the process of calculating the planned activity output
    through Long term planning?
    In Long term planning process the planned production quantities are
    entered for the planning year in a particular scenario. The Long term
    planning is executed for the scenario. This generates the planned activity
    requirements taking the activity quantities from the routing and
    multiplying with the planned production.
    The activity requirements are then transferred to the controlling module
    as scheduled activity quantities. Thereafter you execute a plan activity
    reconciliation which will reconcile the schedule activity and the activity
    you have planned manually. The reconciliation program updates the
    scheduled activity quantity as the planned activity in the controlling
    module.
    You want to revalue the production orders using actual activity
    prices. Is there any configuration setting?
    Yes. There is a configuration setting to be done.
    Where is the configuration setting to be done for carrying out
    revaluation of planned activity prices in various cost objects?
    The configuration setting is to be done in the cost center accounting
    version maintenance for fiscal year. This has to be maintained for version
    0. You need to select revalue option either using own business
    transaction or original business transaction.
    At month end you calculate actual activity prices in the system.
    You want to revalue the production orders with this actual activity
    prices. What are the options available in the system for revaluation?
    The options available are as follows:-
    You can revalue the transactions using periodic price, average price or
    cumulative price.
    Further you can revalue the various cost objects as follows:-
    Own business transaction – Differential entries are posted
    Original business transaction – The original business transaction is
    changed.
    Internal orders
    What is the purpose of defining Internal orders.?
    An example would help us understand this much better.
    Lets say in an organization there are various events such as trade fairs,
    training seminars, which occur during the year. Now lets assume for a
    second that these Trade fairs are organized by the Marketing cost center
    of the organization. Therefore in this case marketing cost center is
    responsible for all the trade fairs costs. All these trade fairs costs are
    posted to the marketing cost centers. Now if the management wants an
    analysis of the cost incurred for each of the trade fair organized by
    the marketing cost center how would the marketing manager get
    this piece of information across to them? The cost center report
    would not give this piece of info
    Now this is where Internal Order steps in .If you go through all cost
    center reports this information is not readily available since all the costs
    are posted to the cost center.
    SAP, therefore provides the facility of using internal orders which comes
    in real handy in such situations. In the above scenario the controlling
    department would then need to create an internal order for each of the
    trade fair organized. The cost incurred for each of the trade fair will be
    posted to the internal orders during the month. At the month end, these
    costs which are collected in the internal order will be settled from these
    orders to the marketing cost center. Thus the controlling person is now
    in a position to analyze the cost for each of the trade fair separately.
    Thus internal order is used to monitor costs for short term events,
    activities. It helps in providing more information than that is provided on
    the cost centers. It can be widely used for various purposes .
    How can you default certain items while creation of internal order
    master data?
    You can do so by creating a model order and then update the fields
    which you want to default in this model order. Finally attach this model
    order in the internal order type in the field reference order.
    Once the above is done whenever you create an internal order for this
    order type the field entries will get copied from the model order.
    What is the configuration setting for the release of the internal
    order immediately after creation?
    You have to check the “release immediately” check box in the
    internal order type.
    Product Costing
    What are the important Terminologies in Product Costing?:
    Results Analysis Key – This key determines how the Work in Progress is
    calculated
    Cost Components - The break up of the costs which get reflected in
    the product costing eg. Material Cost, Labour Cost, Overhead etc
    Costing Sheets - This is used to calculate the overhead in
    Controlling
    Costing Variant - For All manufactured products the price control
    recommended is Standard Price. To come up with this standard price for
    the finished good material this material has to be costed. This is done
    using Costing Variant. Further questions down below will explain this
    concept better.
    What are the configuration settings maintained in the costing
    variant?
    Costing variant forms the link between the application and Customizing,
    since all cost estimates are carried out and saved with reference to a
    costing variant. The costing variant contains all the control parameters
    for costing.
    The configuration parameters are maintained for costing type, valuation
    variants, date control, and quantity structure control.
    In costing type we specify which field in the material master should be
    updated.
    In valuation variant we specify the following
    a) the sequence or order the system should go about accessing
    prices for the material master (planned price, standard price,
    moving average price etc).
    b) It also contains which price should be considered for activity price
    calculation and .
    c) How the system should select BOM and routing.
    How does SAP go about costing a Product having multiple Bill of
    materials within it?
    SAP first costs the lowest level product, arrives at the cost and then goes
    and cost the next highest level and finally arrives at the cost of the final
    product.
    What does the concept of cost roll up mean in product costing
    context?
    The purpose of the cost roll up is to include the cost of goods
    manufactured of all materials in a multilevel production structure at the
    topmost level of the BOM(Bill of Material)
    The costs are rolled up automatically using the costing levels.
    1) The system first calculates the costs for the materials with the
    lowest costing level and assigns them to cost components.
    2) The materials in the next highest costing level (such as semifinished
    materials) are then costed. The costs for the materials
    costed first are rolled up and become part of the material costs of
    the next highest level.
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    8:20 pm      Tuesday; September 16, 2014
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  • Sharing an iTunes Library across multiple user account and a network.

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    Hello Everybody!
    Firstly, this was designed to be run in Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger. It will not work with earlier versions of Mac OS X! Sorry.
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    • Firstly I think it might be worthwhile to state the advantages and disadvantages to using this approach.
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    - The administrator will be able to have complete control over the content of the iTunes library, this may be useful for restricting the content of the Library; particularly for example if computer is being used at and education institution, business or any other sort of institution where things such as explicit content would be less favorable.
    - The machine will not be slowed by the fact that every user has lots of files.
    The disadvantages to this system include.
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    - If the account housing the music is not active then nobody can use the iTunes library.
    - There is a certain degree of risk present when an administrator account must be continually active.
    - Fast User Switching must be enabled.
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    This is a hearty process to undertake, so only follow this tutorial if you're willing to go all the way to the end of it.
    Process:
    Step 1:
    Firstly, we need to organize the host library, I tidied mine up, removing excess playlists, random files, things like that. this will make thing a bit easier in the later stages of this process.
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    Optionally you can set the ownership of the folder to the 'administrator' account (the user who will be hosting the library.), you may also like to set the permissions of 'you can' to "Read & Write" (assuming that you are doing this through the user who will host the library); secondly you should set the "Owner" to the administrator who will be hosting the library and set their "access" to "Read & Write" (this will ensure that the administrator has full access to the folder). The final part of this step involves setting access for the "Others" tab to "Read Only" this will ensure that the other users can view but not modify the contents on the folder.
    Overview:
    So far we have done the following steps:
    1. Organized the host library.
    2. Placed the iTunes directory into a 'public' directory so that other users may use it. (this step is essential if you plan on sharing the library across multiple accounts on the same machine. NOTE: this step is only necessary if you are wanting to share you library across multiple accounts on the same machine, if you simply want to share the music across a network, use the iTunes sharing facility.
    3. set ownership and permissions for the iTunes music folder.
    Step 2:
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    If you are not logged in as the administrator, do so; secondly, open iTunes and select "Preferences" from the "iTunes" menu, now click the "Sharing" tab, if "share my library on my local network" is not checked, the radio buttons below this will now become active, you may choose to share the entire libraries contents, or share only selected content.
    Sharing only selected content may be useful if their is explicit content in the library and minors use the network or machine that the library is connected to.
    If you have selected "share entire library" go to Step 3, if you have selected share "share selected playlists" read on.
    After clicking "share selected playlists" you must then select the playlists that you intend to share across your accounts and network. Once you have finished selecting the playlists, click "OK" to save the settings.
    Overview:
    In this step we:
    1. Enabled iTunes sharing in the administrator's account, now, users on the local network may access the iTunes library, however, users on the same machine may not.
    Step 3:
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    This in effect will mean that the user will not need to use their user library, it will be provided to them via a pseudo network connection.
    As a secondary measure, I have chosen to write a generic login script that will move any content from the user's "Music/iTunes/iTunes Music" directory to the trash and then empties the user's trash.
    This is done through the use of an Automator Application: this application does the following actions.
    1. Uses the "Finder" action "Get Specified Finder Items"
    1a. The user's "~/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music" folder
    2. Uses the "Finder" action "Get Folder Contents"
    3. Uses the "Finder" action "Move to Trash"
    4. Uses the "Automator" action "Run AppleScript"
    4a. with the following:
    on run {input, parameters}
    tell application "Finder"
    empty trash
    end tell
    return input
    end run
    IMPORTANT: Once the script is adapted to the user account it must be set as a login item. in order to keep the script out of the way i have placed it in the user's "Library" directory, in "Application Support" under "iTunes".
    Overview:
    Here we:
    1. Enabled iTunes sharing in the user accounts on the host machine, in effect allowing all users of the machine to view a single iTunes library.
    2. (Optional) I have created a login application that will remove any content that has been added to user iTunes libraries, this in effect stops other users of the machine from adding music and files to iTunes.
    Step 4:
    If it is not already enabled, open system preferences and enable Fast User Switching in Accounts Options.
    Summary:
    We have shared a single iTunes library across multiple user account, while still allowing for network sharing. This method is designed to save space on machines, particularly those with smaller hard drives.
    I hope that this hint proves to be helpful and I hope everybody will give me feedback on my process.
    regards,
    Pete.
    iBook G4; 60GB Hard Drive, 512MB RAM, Airport Extreme   Mac OS X (10.4.6)   iWork & iLife '06, Adobe CS2, Final Cut Pro. Anything and Everything!!!

    how to share music between different accounts on a single computer

  • TS4097 we have multiple users in our family and multiple devices all sharing one itunes account.  i think we are all synced to one icloud account and it is a nightmare....contacts lost, text messags showing up on multiple devises etc.  how do we fix this?

    We have our family sharing one itunes account.  we have 3 iphones, 2 macbook airs, 2 ipads and 1 mac.  I am not sure how we even got started on the icloud but somehow we did and everything is a mess.  The ipads are showing the text messages, the contacts are all combined, the apps that my duaghter downloads are appearing on all devices.  how do we fix this so contacts are not shared, messages are not shared and apps are not automatically synced to all devises?

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    When finished, to un-merge the data in your accounts you will have to go to icloud.com on your computer and sign into each iCloud account separately and manually delete the data you don't want (such as deleting the other person's contacts from your account, and vice versa).

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